Message Regarding the ProtonMail DDoS Attacks

(Version française ci-dessous)

EDIT: We have given an exclusive interview to Tech Republic about the DDoS attacks and what happened behind the scenes. The story is now online here: http://www.techrepublic.com/article/exclusive-inside-the-protonmail-siege-how-two-small-companies-fought-off-one-of-europes-largest-ddos/

We are happy to announce today that after several days of intense work, we have largely mitigated the DDoS attacks against us. These attacks took ProtonMail offline making it impossible to access emails, but did not breach our security. At present, attacks are continuing, but they are no longer capable of knocking ProtonMail offline for extended periods of time. As our infrastructure recovers over the next several days, there may still be intermittent service interruptions, but we have now largely restored all services. Our successful recovery was only possible due to the valiant efforts of IP-Max and Radware, and we would like to sincerely thank them.

It has now been one week since the first attack was launched against ProtonMail. Since then, we have been subject to the largest and most extensive cyberattack in Switzerland, with hundreds of other companies also hit as collateral damage. In addition to hitting ProtonMail, the attackers also took down the datacenter housing our servers and attacked several upstream ISPs, causing serious damage. More about the attack which hit us can be found in our earlier statement which is copied below.

Throughout the past week, our team has worked tirelessly to restore service because we know in addition to over half a million regular users, there are also activists, dissidents, and journalists who rely upon ProtonMail for their communications. Mitigating an attack of this size and complexity is not easy and while we managed to restore services several times throughout the week, it was not until around 3 AM Geneva time on November 8th that we finally managed to gain control over the situation.

Rescuing ProtonMail was not a solo effort, and we will forever be grateful to everyone who came to our assistance. Within Switzerland alone, dozens of companies and individuals came forward to help us once news of the attack spread. In particular, we want to thank the network experts from IP-Max in Geneva who volunteered their time and expertise. Without their heroic 18 hour effort, it would not have been possible for ProtonMail to come back up so quickly in the face of such a massive attack. During the rescue operation, the IP-Max team accomplished the impossible, and managed to connect a brand new direct line from our datacenter to the main PoP in Zurich, 114 kilometers away, on a Saturday, in less than 18 hours! Nobody else in Switzerland could have accomplished that. We would also like to thank Level 3 Communications for arranging an emergency IP Transit, and Patrick Muller, Pim van Pelt, David Corriveau, Ivan Adji-Krstev, and Michel Streiff for their assistance.

In order to mitigate the DDoS attack against us, we partnered with Radware, one of the world’s premier DDoS protection companies. In Radware, we found a solution that was capable of protecting ProtonMail without compromising email privacy. Given the magnitude of the attack we faced, we knew that we would have to work with the best, and Radware’s BGP redirection solution fit our requirements. During our hour of need, there were many companies who attempted to charge us exorbitant amounts, but Radware offered their services at a very reasonable price in order to get us online as soon as possible. With Radware DefensePipe, we were finally able to mitigate the attack on ProtonMail.

Last but not least, we would like to thank our community of users. We built ProtonMail for you, and we would like to thank you for having our back, in both good times and bad times. In just three days, the ProtonMail Defense Fund has gathered $50,000 in donations, giving us the resources to resist further attacks against email privacy. By attacking the world’s largest free private email service, the attackers sent a message that they did not want online privacy to succeed. However, we have now sent them back an even stronger message, that online privacy is here to stay.

Today, ProtonMail is stronger than ever, and with IP-Max and Radware behind us, not only did we mitigate the largest DDoS attack in Switzerland in a couple days, we also gained the ability to resist such attacks in the future. The attackers hoped to destroy our community, but this attack has only served to bring us all together, united by a common cause and vision for the future. The road ahead will surely contain more difficulties, but together, we shall overcome.

What’s Next?

In the coming weeks, we will be analyzing the data from the attack against us with the assistance of experts from around the world and releasing a report. Here is what we can safely disclose at this time:

    • ProtonMail was attacked by at least two separate groups. The first attacker, the Armada Collective, demanded a ransom, more on this can be found in the previous posts copied below. The Armada Collective has contacted us to deny responsibility for the second attack.

 

    • The second group caused the vast majority of the damage, including the downing of the datacenter and crippling of upstream ISPs, exhibiting capabilities more commonly possessed by state-sponsored actors. They never contacted us or made any ransom demands. Their sole objective was to take ProtonMail offline, at any cost, with no regards for collateral damage, and to keep us offline for as long as possible. They have still not been identified.

 

    • It was not until the 3rd day of attack that we realised there were two separate attackers. Given the sophistication of the attack used by the second group, we believe they may have been preparing their attack against us for some time. After seeing the first attack, they chose to strike immediately afterwards in the hopes that they would not be discovered as being a separate attacker.

 

    • If there are DDoS experts interested in reviewing the attack data, we welcome them to contact us at security@protonmail.ch

 

At some point in the future, we will also share the full story about the heroics of November 7th.

Unfortunately, this attack will set back our development timeline so releasing ProtonMail 3.0 at the end of November will no longer be possible. Once we have reworked our development timeline, we will advise what the new release date will be. We look forward to continuing on the journey towards a more private and free internet with all of you.

 

Best Regards,
The ProtonMail Team

 

Copied below, you will find our original statements from November 5th.

ProtonMail Statement about the DDOS Attack

As many of you know, ProtonMail came under sustained DDOS attack starting on November 3rd, 2015. At the current moment, we are not under attack and have been able to restore services, but we may come under attack again.

We are currently working with solution providers to find a way to mitigate this attack, however, it is quite unprecedented in size and scope so unfortunately finding a working solution is not easy. Because of the sophistication of this attack, we will also need to resort to quite expensive solutions which will burden our finances. It is for this reason that we are also collecting donations for a ProtonMail defense fund.

Donate to the ProtonMail Defense Fund

ProtonMail was originally created to provide privacy to activists, journalists, whistleblowers, and other at risk groups, and we have many of those people in the ProtonMail community. Unfortunately, there are groups out there determined to oppose this which has led to this incident. However, we are confident that with your support, we can overcome this attack and come back stronger than ever, and continue to provide a place where online privacy is protected.

As we will detail below, this attack has grown beyond just ProtonMail and is a full fledged cyberattack. We have been working with the Swiss Governmental Computer Emergency Response Team (GovCERT), the Cybercrime Coordination Unit Switzerland (CYCO), as part of an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted here in Switzerland and with the assistance of Europol. After much consultation, we have decided to release details about the full extent of the attack on us so the broader security and privacy community can stay informed.

Slightly before midnight on November 3rd, 2015, we received a blackmail email from a group of criminals who have been responsible for a string of DDOS attacks which have happened across Switzerland in the past few weeks.

This threat was followed by a DDOS attack which took us offline for approximately 15 minutes. We did not receive the next attack until approximately 11AM the next morning. At this point, our datacenter and their upstream provider began to take steps to mitigate the attack. However, within the span of a few hours, the attacks began to take on an unprecedented level of sophistication.

At around 2PM, the attackers began directly attacking the infrastructure of our upstream providers and the datacenter itself. The coordinated assault on our ISP exceeded 100Gbps and attacked not only the datacenter, but also routers in Zurich, Frankfurt, and other locations where our ISP has nodes. This coordinated assault on key infrastructure eventually managed to bring down both the datacenter and the ISP, which impacted hundreds of other companies, not just ProtonMail.

At this point, we were placed under a lot of pressure by third parties to just pay the ransom, which we grudgingly agreed to do at 3:30PM Geneva time to the bitcoin address 1FxHcZzW3z9NRSUnQ9Pcp58ddYaSuN1T2y. This was a collective decision taken by all impacted companies, and while we disagree with it, we nevertheless respected it taking into the consideration the hundreds of thousands of Swiss Francs in damages suffered by other companies caught up in the attack against us. We hoped that by paying, we could spare the other companies impacted by the attack against us, but the attacks continued nevertheless. This was clearly a wrong decision so let us be clear to all future attackers – ProtonMail will NEVER pay another ransom.

Through MELANI (a division of the Swiss federal government), we exchanged information with other companies who have also been attacked and made a few discoveries. First, the attack against ProtonMail can be divided into two stages. The first stage is the volumetric attack which was targeting just our IP addresses. The second stage is the more complex attack which targeted weak points in the infrastructure of our ISPs. This second phase has not been observed in any other recent attacks on Swiss companies and was technically much more sophisticated. This means that ProtonMail is likely under attack by two separate groups, with the second attackers exhibiting capabilities more commonly possessed by state-sponsored actors. It also shows that the second attackers were not afraid of causing massive collateral damage in order to get at us.

At present, ProtonMail’s infrastructure is still vulnerable to attacks of this magnitude, but we have a comprehensive long term solution which is already being implemented. Protecting against a highly sophisticated attack like the second one which was launched against us requires sophisticated solutions as we also need to protect our datacenter and upstream providers. Cost estimates for these solutions are around $100,000 per year since there are few service providers able to fight off an attack of this size and sophistication. These solutions are expensive and take time to implement, but they will be necessary because it is clear that online privacy has powerful opponents. In order to cover these costs, we are collecting donations for a ProtonMail defense fund, which can be found here:

Donate to the ProtonMail Defense Fund

We are fighting not just for privacy, but for the future of the internet. We would especially like to thank the thousands of users who offered their support and encouragement on Twitter and Facebook, we will never stop fighting for you. Over the next several weeks, we will begin putting in place the sophisticated protections that are necessary to withstand large scale attacks like this to ensure that online privacy can’t be taken down.

DDOS Update

DDOS Update

We’re sorry that we were unable to prevent this from happening and we are determined to get everyone access to their email as soon as possible.

On Tuesday November 3, 2015 ProtonMail was taken offline by an extremely powerful DDOS attack.

For people who don’t know what a DDOS attack is, here is a metaphor that best illustrates it:

Imagine yourself as a car on the freeway. You want to access ProtonMail, so you are driving to visit our site that’s located in Switzerland. Because the internet is amazing, it takes less than a second to arrive. During a DDOS attack, millions of fake cars join you on the freeway and cause a massive traffic jam. The result is that ProtonMail is unharmed and perfectly fine, but no one can visit because of the grid-lock.

The attackers began by flooding our IP addresses. That quickly expanded to the datacenter in Switzerland where we have our servers. In the process of attacking us, several other tech companies and even some banks were knocked offline temporarily.

Despite our best efforts, we have been unable to stop the attack but we are working non-stop to get back online.

Even though access is limited, an important thing to note is that our core end-to-end encryption holds strong and is 100% untouched. All user data is fine and safe.

To solve this problem we are working with the top companies and people both onsite in our Swiss data center and from around the world. We are confident we will be back online – we just wish it was sooner rather than later.

For the latest updates, Twitter is the best place to look.

Version Française

Nous sommes heureux d’annoncer aujourd’hui qu’après plusieurs jours de travail intense, nous avons largement mitigé les attaques DDoS qui nous frappaient. Ces attaques ont rendu ProtonMail inaccessible mais n’ont pas mis en danger la sécurité de nos services. A présent, les attaques continuent, mais ne sont plus en mesure de rendre ProtonMail inaccessible pour de longs moments. Alors que nous adaptons notre infrastructure au cours des prochains jours, il se peut que quelques problèmes d’accès se produisent, mais nous avons maintenant largement restauré tous les services. La réussite de ce rétablissement de nos services n’a été possible que grâce aux efforts vigoureux d’IP-Max et de Radware, que nous tenons à remercier sincèrement.

Cela fait maintenant une semaine que la première attaque a été lancée contre Protonmail. Depuis, nous avons subi la plus grande et la plus longue cyber-attaque de Suisse, affectant par dommages collatéraux des centaines d’autres entreprises. En plus de l’attaque contre Protonmail, les attaquants ont également rendu inaccessible le centre de données hébergeant nos serveurs, et attaqué plusieurs de nos fournisseurs d’accès Internet, produisant des dommages considérables.

Pendant cette dernière semaine, notre équipe a travaillé sans relâche pour rétablir le service, car nous savons que, parmi notre demi million d’utilisateurs, il y a des activistes, des dissidents et des journalistes qui dépendent de Protonmail pour communiquer. Mitiger une attaque de cette ampleur et de cette complexité n’est pas chose facile, et alors que nous avions réussi plusieurs fois à rétablir le service pendant la semaine, ce n’est qu’à 3 heures du matin le 8 novembre, heure de Genève, que nous avons finalement repris le contrôle de la situation.

Sauver Protonmail n’a pas été un effort solitaire, et nous serons toujours reconnaissant envers tous ceux qui nous ont aidé. Rien qu’en Suisse, des douzaines d’entreprises et de particuliers nous ont offert leur aide, dès que l’information concernant l’attaque s’est propagée. En particulier, nous voulons remercier les experts réseau d’IP-Max à Genève, qui ont donné leur temps et leur expertise. Sans leurs efforts héroïques pendant 18 heures, il n’aurait pas été possible pour ProtonMail de revenir en ligne aussi rapidement, en face d’une attaque aussi massive. Pendant l’opération de sauvetage, l’équipe d’IP-Max a accompli l’impossible, et a réussi à connecter une nouvelle liaison entre le datacenter et un gros point de présence à Zürich, 114km plus loin; un samedi, en moins de 18 heures. Personne d’autre en Suisse n’aurait pu accomplir ceci. Nous aimerions également remercier Level 3 Communications pour avoir arrangé un transit IP en urgence, et également Patrick Muller, Pim van Pelt, David Corriveau, Ivan Adji-Krstev et Michel Streiff pour leur précieuse aide.

Afin de mitiger les attaques DDoS qui nous frappaient, nous avons établi un partenariat avec Radware, une des premières entreprises de protection contre les dénis de service au monde. Avec Radware, nous avons trouvé une solution capable de protéger Protonmail, sans compromettre la confidentialité des emails. Vu l’ampleur de l’attaque que nous avons affrontée, nous savions que nous devions faire appel au meilleur, et la solution Radware de redirection BGP répond à notre attente. Au plus fort de notre besoin, plusieurs entreprises ont essayé de nous soutirer des montants exorbitants, mais Radware a offert ses services à un prix très raisonnable, afin que nous soyons de retour en ligne aussi vite que possible. Avec Radware DefensePipe, nous avons finalement pu mitiger l’attaque sur Protonmail.

Finalement, nous voulons remercier notre communauté d’utilisateurs. Nous avons construit Protonmail pour vous, et nous souhaitons vous remercier pour votre soutien, autant dans les bons que dans les mauvais moments. En à peine trois jours, le fond de défense de Protonmail a réuni 50’000$ de donations, nous offrant les ressources pour résister à de prochaines attaques contre le droit à la confidentialité des emails. En ciblant le plus grand service gratuit d’email sécurisé, les attaquants ont montré leur volonté d’anéantir la confidentialité en ligne. Nous leur avons maintenant envoyé une réponse encore plus forte, à savoir que la confidentialité en ligne est là pour durer.

Aujourd’hui, ProtonMail est plus fort que jamais, et avec IP-Max et Radware qui nous soutiennent, nous avons non seulement déjoué la plus grande attaque en Suisse en quelques jours, mais nous avons aussi acquis la capacité à résister à de telles attaques dans le futur. Les assaillants ont espéré détruire notre communauté, mais cette attaque a surtout permis de tous nous rassembler, unis par une cause et une vision du futur partagées. Le chemin à parcourir sera sûrement encore parsemé d’embûches, mais ensemble, nous vaincrons.

About the Author

Admin

We are scientists, engineers, and developers drawn together by a shared vision of protecting civil liberties online. Ensuring online privacy and security are core values for the ProtonMail team, and we strive daily to protect your rights online.

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64 comments on “Message Regarding the ProtonMail DDoS Attacks

  • So pleased that you guys aren’t disheartened by the experience. Great work coming back online and ensuring that email wasn’t lost in the process.

    Reply
  • By not letting your guard down we can safely say that “history is in the making”.

    Thanks for your work so far for your work and keep it up.

    Reply
  • Hi ProtonMail

    It may help to have a central clearing house for the information already given by the DDoS’ers. That way, we can crowdsource our intelligence on them in the same way we crowdsourced your fundraiser.

    The “Armada Collective” extortion letter appears similar to the DDoS extortion letter used by DD4BC. Both use the same keywords, appear to be written by the same author, and evidence the same syncopated use of the English language which I believe to be Chinese.

    Martin Albert at Bitalo, a victim of a DD4BC DDoS attack, believes he knows who attacked his company, and has offered a 100 Bitcoin award for confirmation of the attacker’s identities. It may be worth contacting Mt. Bitalo to compare notes.

    Another party added a 10 Bitcoin bounty on top of the 100 Bitcoin bounty. This is a significant sum and may serve to provide some identities from within this DDoS group.

    Reply
  • protonmail takes a lickin but keeps on tickin.
    Now to the hackers, how does it feel? did you achieve much by doing this? all you’ve done is bring Protonmail, its users and a requirement for greater protection closer together. I have a question to the “attackers” – Was it worth it? maybe if you spend less time in front of a computer you could have got a much needed good nights sleep hey? or perhaps…the possibility of success with the opposite sex?

    Reply
  • I’m so glad Protonmail is back. Guys, don’t you ever give up! The fact that someone devoted research, resources and risked just to bring you down shows that your work has great value.

    Will you release non-sensitive data about attack to public?

    Reply
      • I don’t care even if it is sensitive, because our privacy is more sensitive to us than any thing else. And if by sensitive data you mean the names of the states and the state sponsored players then you don’t even have to make any guess. Biggest enemies of the privacy are CIA & NSA my dear friend, and I’m sure the they are the biggest players behind these attacks. So don’t sweat it out my dear friend, the whole world know who the real culprit is.

        Reply
  • Don’t over look those Jackasses at the NSA! I would not put anything past any part of the US Government. The Congress just recently passed a law making it a crime for ISPs to develop unbreakable encryption software to protect their orgs. The next thing to go will be FREEDOM to THINK! GREAT JOB, EXCELLENT SERVICE, THANK YOU!!!

    Reply
    • Pretty sure that law did not actually happen. However they are trying every trick and deception possible to push it through. The people in Congress are either ignorant how encryption works or simply using recent events to nab whatever online privacy the Patriot Act didn’t already take. (I think the latter) Its only going to get worse, Im just glad the guys at Proton Mail in Switzerland are fighting for whats right.

      Reply
  • I was excited to find an email service that regards privacy to such a high level. What happened in the last few weeks has only convinced me all the more that proton is more than just an email service, but a group of people who are willing to do anything to ensure that information online is respected. Good job guys, keep up the good work. Thank you for everything you have done. You are creating technology that is the only hope of saving the internet. Without proper security, the internet is a dangerous place.

    Reply
  • Glad you guys are back in service!

    I have to ask though, is it OK to use the Radware services? By that I mean, they’re Israel/U.S. based, unlike IP-Max who’s based in Switzerland.

    Not like I don’t trust Radware, but a “certain entity” is also based in the U.S, and it has a lot of reach inside it. Can’t help but feeling a bit uncomfortable at that thought.

    Reply
  • Regarding the question: What’s the purpose of the whole exercise (that is, the DDOS attack)?

    Due to the attackers professional approach, it might be a military cyber maneuver under real-life conditions, against a technical advanced target. New high-tech-weapons are readily tested on the battlefields in international crises. So why shouldn’t developers of cyber war tools the same way be interested, to test their products under real-life conditions? Alarming thought…

    A big compliment to the Protonmail team, you’re doing a great job – keep it up!

    Reply
  • Never pay ransom. I have other means of communicating in business as backup. Being down for short periods will never be a problem that cannot be lived with at the expense of privacy. Thanks for your service.

    Reply
  • Thank you so much for clarifying what was going on. I had seen something along these lines, but wanted confirmation. You are providing a beneficial service to the whole world and I greatly appreciate your efforts to keep our mail secure.

    Reply
  • You guys are a legend.

    You are like the army of light, a group of brilliant men of science, fighting against the rotten corpses of oppressive hackers and other minions of the underworld trying to do everything to undermine the free world’s privacy.

    One fine day, you guys will become known as one of the last instances on the world wide web who stood up against the forces of evil, to have brought back a safe spot of privacy for those fighting against sick criminal states, banking cartels, oil barons, pharma industries and all others who take might for right and would do anything to make more money, regardless of the outcome.

    When I think of the few last positive movements and forces yet in existence, you are on top of the list, which.. unfortunately, has become quite short these days.

    my deepest kudos for doing what you do.

    You are helpin so many !

    Reply
  • We standby and support Protonmail in defense of world wide e-mail privacy. You guys are scoring points with the man upstairs, and one day will be rewarded for your efforts. The infosec community is with you and respects every aspect of your work. It seems state actors are doing everything they can to invade and infiltrate privacy world wide. Continued success to Protonmail. You guys are doing god’s work. Keep it up. We all know who the real bad guys are.

    Reply
  • As a physician concerned with patient confidentiality I have been exhorting my colleagues to use this as the only safe service to convey confidential information. The prompt and open response of the Proton team only serves to heighten my admiration for what you are doing. Yes, I’ll contribute to the fund.

    Meanwhile, the first thing that sprung to my mind was, apart from the extortionists, who would be most likely to want to damage this service? Who stands to lose the most from letting it continue. The first and most obvious answer that comes to mind is the Americans, more specifically the NSA. Next the Chinese. Anyone want to lay bets as to which of them it was?

    Reply
    • I’ve convinced my physician father to do the same thing. His hospital is moving to electronic sharing of patient records / lab reports, but has not put enough thought into protecting its internal email accounts. I can just see the lawsuits coming…

      Reply
  • let us look at it positively , protonmail was attacked but data was not lost or stolen. It is an example to prove protonmail can be trusted.

    Reply
  • Hell, let’s pay for the service so that we do not have to put up with these idiots.!
    Just tell us how much it will cost. I am confident many will still join the site. Good work pals.

    Reply
  • The very fact that some evilminded jackasses spent so much time and effort in planning, suggests indeed some high level involvement. Using Dumb & Co in the Far East as cover confirms just that. Protonmail and its supporters can wear this attack as a badge of honour. We make some people very nervous. Which makes me feel very good…

    Reply
    • Security was never compromised, the attack just made the website inaccessible for several days. We have now mitigated the attack so the website will be always accessible, even if we are attacked again.

      Reply
  • avec ce qu’il c’est passé à paris hier …. vos services serons fermé ! c’est la logique même de l’anonymat qui est mise en tord !!
    en 2015 l’anonymat est réellement mort … et cela se discute “en temps de guerre”
    vos assaillants sont vos dirigeants.

    Reply
  • Congratulations, Proton team! You’re doing a great job. Take heart in the knowledge that that most PM users are perfectly willing to put up with some disrupted service in exchange for the benefits you offer us. What exactly was this attack supposed to achieve, anyway? ~Yawn~ If anything, a couple of my friends are just now signing up for new accounts. ^_^

    By the way, when you do start offering a premium/paid option, you can count me in. It’s not that I will need the added features; just that I want to support this great project!

    Reply
    • If you are sincere about supporting Protonmail, why wait for a 2-class-service to be created instead of donating RIGHT NOW and here on the top right? Put your money where your mouth is.

      Reply
  • I am glad to see that Protonmail won. This first attack seems common to me but the second one was clearly perfectly planned and acted out by a professional team that must have had very advanced tools and high funds.
    This smells like a government.

    Reply
  • “ProtonMail encrypts your emails to disk. Unfortunately, it’s an open legal question whether a government could force ProtonMail to falsify keys or serve malicious Javascript to users”.

    Can they do that? .. to force you? or something like that ?

    Thank you for all you do!

    Reply
  • Thanks so much for your email services. Privacy is one of the fundamental human rights, but most of the people seem to forget that nowadays. You deserve more appreciation, respect and financial support.
    I just hope you can resist any kind of attacks or public pressurse and continue to produce your amazing services.

    Reply
  • First off, Thank you ProtonMail – your resilience is to be admired.

    Second, I see a lot of talk about the U.S here and I am always amazed at how much geopolitical issues are expressed in places where privacy is important. If we use the service, is because we like our privacy and therefore respect others. That being said, if we are going to speak about governments, we therefore have to speak about politicians.

    If that is the case, why do people get so emotional towards one government when they are ALL the same?
    Is China or North Korea or Israel or Palestine or any other fucking government which oppresses people’s privacy and “human rights” any different than the U.S? In fact, at least in the U.S or other countries there is a bit more “freedom” than those mentioned above. The answer is hell no! The only difference is whether is public or not. Whether is socially or religiously accepted or not. Whether is “legal” or not.

    The only reason for the quotes above is because all of those things, freedom, legality and human rights are subjective ideals. They are as fleeing as the wind or guess what, the opinion of a human being. We are all full of shit when it comes to human rights, freedom or legality – Therefore, privacy is my religion, god or law, and ProtonMail is here to support that and that is the only thing I support!

    As far as CIA, NSA, Religions and all other forms or probable abusers of people, I say f**k them all!

    Long live Protonmail and anyone who supports fairness and privacy around the world!

    Reply